Animal Virus 1: Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV)

Dear all, you may find a lot of things at internet about these viruses, but I am feeling at home discussing them, reminding myself the stuffs ..Lets start my Viro blogs with my MS thesis topic, PPRV, which is an animal virus of small animals like goat, sheep, deer and others. It is not associated with big ruminants like cow, buffalo etc. It may not be that concern for rich countries, but a great threat for poorer ones, as they largely depend on domestic farming…Okay, Lets start 🙂

Viral diseases of farm animals are now appearing with regularity in areas where they have never been seen before.  PPRV is currently considered as one of the main animal transboundary diseases that constitutes a threat to livestock production in many developing countries, particularly in western Africa and South Asia. It has been seen in both domestic and wild animals.

The origin of the word “Peste des petits ruminants” is French, meaning “Plague of small ruminants”. It is also known as pseudorinderpest, goat plague, Kata, pneumoenteritis complex, Pest of Small Ruminants, Pest of Sheep and Goats, Stomatitis-Pneumoenteritis Syndrome, goat catarrhal fever etc.

The disease is caused by an RNA virus, Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV), in the genus Morbillivirus of Paramyxoviridae family. PPRV is antigenically closely related to rinderpest virus (RPV). Other members of the Morbillivirus genus are human measles virus (MV), canine distemper virus (CDV), phocine distemper virus (PDV), dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) and porpoise Morbillivirus (PMV).

PPRV structure, genome and proteins
PPRV structure, genome and protein
Global distribution of PPRV
Global distribution of PPRV

It is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of sheep and goats characterized by pyrexia, mucopurulent nasal and ocular discharges, necrotizing and erosive stomatitis, enteritis and pneumonia with very high morbidity . Mortality rate from infection is 10% to 90% depending on age and breed of sheep and goats  which can be as high as 100% .

Infection predominantly spreads via the close contact of the diseased animals which have high fever in the flock with vulnerable animals. The oral, nasal and conjunctival secretions and feces of the infected animals contain a great number of viruses.

The disease was first reported in West Africa during 1942 and later found in Senegal, Central Africa, Sudan, India, East Africa, Arabia, Middle East, Ethiopia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Israel and Saudi Arabia. The disease is now enzootic,  which means “native to”, or “prevalent in”  several African and Asian countries. In 1996, outbreaks of PPRV occurred in the European part of Turkey, and the relevance of these once considered ‘exotic’ viruses is now also high across the European Union and may threaten further regions across the globe in the future.

Antibiotics are not very much effective here, and vaccines are not very much available in poorer countries, mutations in virus is another obstacle. But its close relative virus, Rinderpest is already eradicated from earth (sarcastically which may have helped PPRV reach to more regions and more hosts! ) International organizations  for animal heath are working collectively with locals to eradicate it.

Links:

http://www.oie.int/animal-health-in-the-world/official-disease-status/peste-des-petits-ruminants/

http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/X1703E/X1703E00.htm

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/12/14-0684_article

Amphibian me!

When I decided to write about the second assignment on the theme and tagline, it was night already, and was so tired. When I woke up, another topic was already published! It was, say hello to neighbors ! I thought to write on both in one piece, and its night already 😀

As I said it earlier, my English is quite clumsy, as it wasn’t my first language…I didn’t read much English literature as well. But these days, I wanted to fly in  different skies, meet new birds, and English gives nice wings for that! That’s why, I am here!

My tagline, ” stories of mountains is history, stories of pebbles is life”- came from an inspiration. I am reading a book these days, “Love in the land of Midas” by Kapka Kassakova, there is a line, “These are the forces of history and I’m just a pebble tumbling down the hill before the great avalanche” . Yes we all are pebbles here, we won’t be in the history, so what? let tell our stories ourselves! Probably, that’s why Literature was born 🙂

Oh my, joining the neighbors! That took the soul out of me ! It was harder than our neighbor aunty’s, “could you give me some this? or that? or the whole!” When I searched for topics, I was scared, what am I doing? I was trying to hide myself from science, take a breath in history, novels, mythology etc, but I was searching topics like microbiology, cell biology, virology…In a second again arts ones…Started following all, and soon my reader section was a mess!! what should I read and what not!! Feeling like a frog, amphibian one, swimming in arts, and staying in a science hole! So, I put my original soul in “about.me” section 😀

I found lots of people here today, who are just like me, rather they are, Jack of all, and master of all! so, I started thinking of  writing about both…But I am very confused in this matter…After a blog on streets, or street people, suddenly stumbling in a blog like Protein synthesis or some virus, how would it look like?? Again, anyone can find them easily on internet, so should I write them in a blog?  If I do, should I write a new blog about that? But it’ll be very difficult for me to run them two…now, what should I do??