Animal Virus 1: Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV)

Dear all, you may find a lot of things at internet about these viruses, but I am feeling at home discussing them, reminding myself the stuffs ..Lets start my Viro blogs with my MS thesis topic, PPRV, which is an animal virus of small animals like goat, sheep, deer and others. It is not associated with big ruminants like cow, buffalo etc. It may not be that concern for rich countries, but a great threat for poorer ones, as they largely depend on domestic farming…Okay, Lets start 🙂

Viral diseases of farm animals are now appearing with regularity in areas where they have never been seen before.  PPRV is currently considered as one of the main animal transboundary diseases that constitutes a threat to livestock production in many developing countries, particularly in western Africa and South Asia. It has been seen in both domestic and wild animals.

The origin of the word “Peste des petits ruminants” is French, meaning “Plague of small ruminants”. It is also known as pseudorinderpest, goat plague, Kata, pneumoenteritis complex, Pest of Small Ruminants, Pest of Sheep and Goats, Stomatitis-Pneumoenteritis Syndrome, goat catarrhal fever etc.

The disease is caused by an RNA virus, Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV), in the genus Morbillivirus of Paramyxoviridae family. PPRV is antigenically closely related to rinderpest virus (RPV). Other members of the Morbillivirus genus are human measles virus (MV), canine distemper virus (CDV), phocine distemper virus (PDV), dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) and porpoise Morbillivirus (PMV).

PPRV structure, genome and proteins
PPRV structure, genome and protein
Global distribution of PPRV
Global distribution of PPRV

It is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of sheep and goats characterized by pyrexia, mucopurulent nasal and ocular discharges, necrotizing and erosive stomatitis, enteritis and pneumonia with very high morbidity . Mortality rate from infection is 10% to 90% depending on age and breed of sheep and goats  which can be as high as 100% .

Infection predominantly spreads via the close contact of the diseased animals which have high fever in the flock with vulnerable animals. The oral, nasal and conjunctival secretions and feces of the infected animals contain a great number of viruses.

The disease was first reported in West Africa during 1942 and later found in Senegal, Central Africa, Sudan, India, East Africa, Arabia, Middle East, Ethiopia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Israel and Saudi Arabia. The disease is now enzootic,  which means “native to”, or “prevalent in”  several African and Asian countries. In 1996, outbreaks of PPRV occurred in the European part of Turkey, and the relevance of these once considered ‘exotic’ viruses is now also high across the European Union and may threaten further regions across the globe in the future.

Antibiotics are not very much effective here, and vaccines are not very much available in poorer countries, mutations in virus is another obstacle. But its close relative virus, Rinderpest is already eradicated from earth (sarcastically which may have helped PPRV reach to more regions and more hosts! ) International organizations  for animal heath are working collectively with locals to eradicate it.